Summary Mycobacterium tuberculosis is readily transmitted in microscopic airborne particles called ‘droplet nuclei’. The extent to which the infection spreads to others is influenced by the infectiousness of the TB patient, local environmental conditions and the susceptibility of exposed individuals. Institutional strategies to prevent transmission should integrate the use of managerial processes, administrative guidelines, environmental protections and personal protective devices. In some settings, such as households and prisons, screening high-risk individuals may reduce transmission. Controlling the spread of multidrug-resistant TB and extensively drug-resistant TB is a critical challenge, which relies upon promptly making the diagnosis and initiating appropriate treatment. Local infection control policies must be adapted according to the epidemiological circumstances and availability of resources.
Future Medicine, London, UK. 53-75